What is Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)?

 What is BPO? A Guide to Business Process Outsourcing in 2024

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In the complex landscape of modern business, managing every operation efficiently is a significant challenge for companies. Only a few people have the requisite staff, technological tools, or specialized expertise to effectively manage every aspect of business operations. This shortfall often obstructs business growth and market competitiveness. Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) emerges as a strategic solution, enabling businesses to delegate non-core functions to external experts. It drives innovation and saves time and resources for the business to focus on its primary goal. 

What is Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)?

Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) is a strategic practice where companies assign specific business functions or processes to external service providers. It allows businesses to focus on their core activities by outsourcing non-core, critical operational tasks to specialized firms. It helps companies leverage external expertise without building an internal team, optimizing their performance.

The Evolution of BPO Services

BPO services began in the late 20th century when companies started outsourcing parts of their supply chain to external partners. Initially, the companies followed this practice to reduce manufacturing costs and focus more on key operational aspects like design and marketing.


With the advancement of the internet and telecommunication over the years, the concept of BPO expanded beyond manufacturing. The companies also began to outsource business processes that involve back-office functions. These functions primarily included data entry, payroll, and customer support.


By the early 21st century, Business Process Outsourcing had transformed into a global industry. The BPO service providers in countries like India, the Philippines, and Eastern Europe offer a wide range of services to companies in the West. Western companies especially started to outsource their operation to save cost, access global talent, and provide round-the-clock service to their customers.


Today, BPO is an integral part of strategic planning for businesses looking to optimize their operations, improve service delivery, and adapt to the dynamic global market. Innovative technologies like a cloud phone system, process automation, and artificial intelligence further extended the capabilities and efficiency of BPO services.

Types of Business Process Outsourcing

Business Process Outsourcing is classified into - onshore, nearshore, and offshore outsourcing. They are categorized based on the location of the BPO service provider relative to the hiring company.

Onshore Outsourcing

Onshore outsourcing refers to outsourcing services to the provider in the same country as the hiring company. It’s ideal for businesses to prioritize close oversight and in-person interactions with outsourcing partners. It facilitates easier communication and collaboration as there are no language barriers, and cultural and legal frameworks are also the same.

Nearshore Outsourcing

Nearshore outsourcing involves contracting business processes to providers in countries geographically close to the hiring company. It can offer ease of communication, as both parties may follow similar time zones. Nearshore BPO is ideal for companies to outsource business processes internationally but with similar work cultures

Offshore Outsourcing

Offshore outsourcing involves engaging with service providers in far-off countries, often on different continents. The businesses typically choose countries with lower labor costs. It can significantly save operational expenses. Additionally, it also offers access to a vast talent pool.

Why Do Companies Outsource Business Processes?

Companies typically outsource business processes to focus on primary business goals while transferring supplementary operations to external expertise.

Save Cost

The labor costs can vary in different locations. Businesses outsource their tasks to regions where labor is more affordable without compromising service quality. Moreover, businesses can save on the infrastructure investment that would otherwise be required for in-house operations.

Improve operational Flexibility

BPO offers businesses the flexibility to adjust their operations in response to market demands rapidly. Companies can outsource certain tasks and scale services up or down without going through lengthy and costly processes to recruit and train new staff.

Expand Globally

BPO provides a strategic advantage for businesses to expand into new international markets. Partnering with local BPO providers allows companies to gain insights into local consumer behavior and regulatory requirements. It facilitates smoother entry and operation. 

Improve Efficiency and Productivity

Outsourcing to BPO firms offers businesses access to specialized expertise and innovative technologies that may not be available in-house. It leads to process improvements, which directly enhances efficiency and productivity.

Drawbacks of Business Process Outsourcing

Outsourcing business processes means losing control over certain operations. It can misalign your operations with your business objectives.

Security Breaches

You may need to share sensitive business data as you transform business operations to a third party. External providers may only sometimes match a company’s stringent security protocols. It leads to potential data leaks or cyber-attacks.

Overdependent on the External Provider

Relying on an external provider for essential services can put a company at risk. For instance, when a service provider encounters problems such as service disruption or quality decline, it can cause operational downtime.

Customer Satisfaction Not Guaranteed

Outsourcing only sometimes guarantees customer satisfaction, especially in customer service. Misunderstandings due to cultural or linguistic differences between the service provider's employees and the customers can lead to frustration and dissatisfaction.

Loss of Organizational Knowledge

Business Process Outsourcing services might not fully understand a company’s products, services, or customer relationships like in-house teams do. This detachment can lead to a degradation in the quality of service and innovation within the company.

BPO Best Practices

When outsourcing operations, assess the associated risks to safeguard your business. You must also choose a service provider that facilitates smooth transition and collaboration.

Define your Purpose and Goal of BPO

Before outsourcing your business process, clearly define its purpose or goal. This involves understanding what you aim to achieve - cost reduction, improving efficiency, or accessing specialized skills. It helps you to select the service that aligns with your business objectives. 

Prepare for Potential Risks

Identify the potential risks, such as data breaches, compliance, or poor service quality, before outsourcing your operation. Develop a risk management plan that addresses these challenges. It helps minimize disruptions and safeguard your business interests. 

Assess Business Process Outsourcing Service Provider

Assess the service provider’s track record, expertise, and compliance with industry standards. Also, review their technological capabilities and approach to security and data privacy. This assessment ensures you select the BPO service provider that meets your business requirements.

Establish Clear Communication Channels

Develop a clear communication channel with your BPO provider for a successful partnership. Facilitate regular updates, transparent reporting, and open lines for feedback. It helps you to quickly address any issues that may arise, maintaining operational harmony.

Common BPO Services

Though BPO service originated from the manufacturing industry, today, it spans various sectors, including call center customer service, supply chain management, and IT and software development outsourcing. These industries typically leverage Business Process Outsourcing to access specialized skills and improve operational efficiency.

Call Center Customer Service

BPO call center service handles customer inquiries, support, and feedback through phone calls, emails, and live chats. Businesses outsource these functions to access experienced and scalable customer service teams that enable them to provide 24/7 support. It helps businesses enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Supply Chain Management

BPO supply chain management services offer to plan and manage the businesses’ sourcing, procurement, conversion, and logistics. Companies can outsource such business activities and access global expertise and technology, which optimizes the supply chain for efficiency and resilience. It saves operational costs and improves product delivery times.

IT and Software Development Outsourcing

Businesses often outsource IT and software development projects to external providers to access specialized technological expertise. These services offer to accelerate development cycles and reduce development costs.  Outsourcing IT and software development enables businesses to leverage technological innovation while focusing their internal resources on strategic business areas.


Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) is a critical component of the global business ecosystem. It allows organizations to optimize their operations and concentrate on their core competencies. Advanced technologies, including VoIP phone systems, have significantly contributed to the evolution of BPO services. These systems facilitate seamless, efficient communication channels between BPO providers, companies, and their customers.


Calilio offers a VoIP-powered business phone system that empowers BPO firms to deliver unparalleled customer service with its high-definition voice quality and comprehensive multi-channel support capabilities. Sign up today for seamless BPO communications.

Frequently Asked Questions

What does BPO mean?

BPO stands for Business Process Outsourcing, where businesses delegate specific operations or services to external service providers.

What is BPO best answer?

BPO involves contracting external service providers to handle non-core business activities, allowing companies to focus on their main goals and improve efficiency.

What is BPO in simple words with example?

BPO is hiring another company to perform tasks like customer service (e.g., a tech company outsourcing customer support to a specialized firm).

What is BPO in simple words for interview?

BPO is outsourcing business tasks to third-party providers to enhance service quality and reduce costs, focusing on core business strengths.

Is BPO a job?

BPO is a sector that offers various job opportunities, ranging from customer service to back-office functions.

What happens during a BPO?

During a BPO, specific business functions are transferred to an external provider, who manages these tasks per the contracting company’s requirements.

Is BPO and call center the same?

No, a call center is a type of BPO focused on telecommunication services, whereas BPO encompasses a wider range of outsourcing services beyond calls.

What is the difference between a call center and a BPO?

A call center specifically deals with customer communication, while BPO includes call centers and other outsourced business functions like HR and finance.

What is the difference between BPM and BPO?

BPM (Business Process Management) is about optimizing and managing a company’s processes, while BPO involves outsourcing certain processes to third-party providers.

What are the typical BPO services?

Typical BPO services include customer support, telemarketing, data entry, financial services, HR management, and IT services.

What is BPO in healthcare?

In healthcare, BPO involves outsourcing non-medical services like billing, coding, patient scheduling, and claims processing to specialized providers.

What is BPO customer service?

BPO customer service refers to outsourcing customer support operations, including call centers, email support, and live chat services, to third-party firms.

What is the meaning of IT BPO?

IT BPO involves outsourcing information technology-related processes, such as software development, IT support, and maintenance, to specialized external firms.

What is BPO call center example?

An example of a BPO call center is a company outsourcing its technical support or customer service hotline to an external agency specializing in communication services..

How do you handle customers in BPO?

Handling customers in BPO involves listening attentively, empathizing with their issues, providing accurate information or solutions, and ensuring a positive interaction experience

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